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银川二手房价“五连降” 中介或将寒冬更寒

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 上周天津楼市成交量降逾一成 商业银行收紧购房贷款 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

长沙等12城被确定为2018年棚改拟激励支持城市

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Dachis: JetBlue started the year with some tough moments (a pilot’s panic attack gave them a rough start), but customer satisfaction and excellent social service during the busy holiday travel season carried the brand to success in 2012.
6.Head-Mounted Computer Displays
adj. 全国流行的 n. (全国或全世界范围流行的)疾
鉴于她的成功,她再也无法过上平凡人的生活。
陈女士说:“所有这些搜索项综合反映了2010年的许多方面,还反映了这一年政治和技术领域的变革。”
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Concerns about China’s economy have recently dragged down global financial markets, affecting prospects for the eurozone and many others. Such worries are one reason why the European Central Bank is expected on Thursday to unleash a new round of economic stimulus.

Last year was especially striking because global heat records were broken or tied in every month except January and April, researchers said.
我预计真正的大戏将在2018年初展开。但这是唐纳德?特朗普的贸易世界。我们只有观看的份儿。
其他入围者分别是:《失去信号:黑莓离奇崛起与惊人陨落背后不为人知的故事》(Losing the Signal: The Untold Story Behind the Extraordinary Rise and Spectacular Fall of Blackberry),作者杰基麦克尼什(Jacquie Mcnish)和肖恩缠尔科夫(Sean Silcoff)回顾了黑莓是怎样偏离了航向;《数字黄金:比特币背后不为人知的故事》(Digital Gold: The Untold Story of Bitcoin),作者纳塔涅尔波佩尔(Nathaniel Popper)审视了虚拟货币比特币的崛起;《音乐如何变免费:一整代人犯下同样罪行的后果》(How Music Got Free: What Happens When an Entire Generation Commits the Same Crime?),作者斯蒂芬威特(Stephen Witt)介绍了盗版和对等网络共享(P2P)扰乱唱片业的历史;《做不完的事:女人、男人、工作、家庭》(Un滻椀猀栀攀搀 Business: Women Men Work Family),作者安妮-玛丽斯劳特(Anne-Marie Slaughter)在书中讨论了实现性别平衡面临的挑战,以及《行为不端:解读行为经济学》(Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioural Economics),作者理查德泰勒(Richard Thaler)追踪了行为经济学的发展。
最佳迷你剧集/电影类导演:苏珊娜?比埃尔(Susanne Bier),《夜班经理》(The Night Manager)
优秀的老板们懂得授权的艺术。我的一位评论家说要沿着线走“他们已经从目前的工作里面抽身”,意味着他们不干涉每一天和每一分的工作流程和程序。本质上,学着去授权给员工去代替微化管理是对员工的一种信任。

Footnotes

  • 毕业季催生暑期租房热 住房租赁补贴降低生活成本
  • But Mr Stevenson said “this might reflect that the US is being bolder than the EU in protecting domestic steel producers”.

vt. 妥协处理,危
雅虎宣布数据外泄影响数百万人引人震惊,勒索软件WannaCry和BadRabbit的网络攻击引人担忧,2017年我们经历了数起严重的网络安全灾难。
Taobao, subsidiary of Alibaba, came in second place, with a brand value of $42.9 billion, overtaking China Mobile, Baidu and ICBC.
对投资者来说,这一切都是坏消息。而现在恰好是美国30年债券牛市行情即将终结的时候。
我在喜马拉雅山的山脚下度过了青春岁月,当时有个朋友被我们称为“追梦人”。他每天都在享受最微妙的乐趣——用五颜六色标注蝴蝶、数地平线上的高峰,对着形状各异的云朵编故事。他是个快乐的家伙,对生活的美妙深有体会,容易兴奋激动。亲爱的2013届毕业生,我认识这家伙很多年了,今天我坐下来给你们写这篇文章的时候,突然想到了他。
该数据还显示,在2015年,共计有12亿6000万人次的中国观众进入电影院,这一数字也比前一年提升了大约51%。

杭州排队买房调查:摇号吸引刚需大军 价差诱惑投资客

References

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