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观望中的2017年北京二手房市场:成交量同比减半 换房成本增加

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 双十一电商大战狂欢后续 网民惊呼定制家居要来临了! (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

中国3月楼市呈现“小阳春” 带动沪指创13个月来收盘新高

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

一位新浪微博网友写道:“不敢相信这么多医生都在论文中造假。病人还能相信他们可以帮人治病吗?”
对投资者而言,今年对行业的准确判断还只是个小问题,因为除了美股,今年全球的投资好选择不多。
埃伦?约翰逊?瑟利夫2005年成为非洲第一位民主选举产生的女总统。挪威诺贝尔和平奖委员会赞扬她打破种族和宗教界限,帮助结束了利比利亚的内战。
Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew announced the plans for the new redesign Wednesday. Lew said the Treasury Department will launch a social media campaign dubbed "The New 10" to solicit ideas on whose portrait should be chosen for the new bill, along with a series of public meetings. He will reveal his decision sometime this year.
PC demand has been hit by competition from smartphones and tablets, along with longer lifecycles for PCs. Shipments fell in all regions around the world and have declined for five quarters in a row, according to IDC's figures.
At its Worldwide Developer Conference in June, Mr Cook was mobbed by app makers who asked him to pose for selfies. By October’s iPad launch, he was even cracking jokes at his own expense. Clad in his habitual but unglamorous uniform of black untucked shirt and jeans, he said that Apple Watch had been well received by “people who know a lot about fashion and style — even more than I do”, pointing a knowing finger at the chuckling audience.
Song “Taste of China” (Phoenix Legend)

"Overall this ranking of Asia's best 300 universities proves what a dynamic, diverse and competitive higher education region the continent is becoming -- and China is a key part of that development," said Baty.
The research also suggests there maybe a value in finding a job through an internship. Interns who accepted a job offer had higher salaries than those who had received an offer but refused it. Those interns who did not receive an offer had lower salaries still. The gap between these groups had increased three years after graduation.
现在似乎可以放心地预言,2017年余下时间会出现更多噪音、甚少进展,而这将继续对贸易和英国经济造成破坏。
我是否在担忧未来?担忧某些并未发生的事情会导致压力和焦虑。专注于当下,了解到这就是目前所存在的一切。
东道主的对手阿根廷队在此次世界杯中也有很大的机会。一支以梅西为主的队伍都会在最后大放异彩,但是当你在队伍中增添类似塞尔吉奥·阿奎罗(Sergio Aguero)、冈萨罗·伊瓜因(Gonzalo Higuan)和埃泽奎尔·拉维奇(Ezequiel Lavezzi)这样的队员的话,那么它将是这届世界杯上最具有进攻打法的球队了。同理,乌拉圭的进攻三人组——路易斯·苏亚雷斯(Luis Suarez)、埃丁森·卡瓦尼(Edinson Cavani)以及迪亚戈·弗兰(Diegol Forlan)同样拥有同等的实力,能对世界上任何一支球队比赛时进球,不过,他们所在队伍中其他人的实力是否足够强还让人存疑。

Footnotes

  • 中介拖延退押金 租客向工商投诉
  • 当其他同龄人每天乖乖去上学的时候,她已经出来养家糊口四年了,她不得不快速成熟起来。

待售房产:一栋带有三间卧室和三间半浴室的河滨当代住宅
10. A bad marriage can lead to an early death
On China's Twitter-like Weibo, many netizens thumbed up the boy's bravery and calmness in the face of such emergency.
欧盟完成与墨西哥现有贸易协议的(重新)谈判也是如此。在与墨西哥签订协议上,布鲁塞尔很可能比特朗普先冲过终点线。
While Jodie Foster used to opt for the bathroom – “they looked good with the faucets” – she has since moved the two she won for The Accused and Silence of the Lambs to a much more orthodox spot: a trophy case.
自1983年以来,每年的央视春晚就成为了中国人民春节必不可少的重要组成部分,也难怪主办方的每个举动都能成为关注的焦点。

满足棚改货币化补偿市民购房需求

References

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